More than 30 different bacterias, viruses and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact. More than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day worldwide. STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, Many STIs can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. STIs such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia are major causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility in women. 82.4 million people were newly infected with N. gonorrhoeae in 2020.
Similar to the diagnosis of many other infectious diseases, the direct detection of specific nucleic acids from STI pathogens using different nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has become the new “gold standard” for the diagnosis of many STIs due to superior sensitivity and specificity. The use of laboratory-developed assays (LDAs) using conventional PCR or real-time PCR-based detection methods for STIs diagnosis are popular, especially, for research and epidemiologic purposes.
.https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sexually-transmitted-infections-(stis) Date accessed:14 June 2019 . Global progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections, 2021 . Unemo M, Ballard R, Ison C, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus[J]. 2013.